Translate Page

Pioneers in Methodism: William Apess

William Apess was the first Native American licensed to preach by American Methodists. Photo from "A Son of the Forest. The Experience of Will Apes (sic), A Native of the Forest," courtesy of Internet Archive; graphic by Laurens Glass, United Methodist Communications.
William Apess was the first Native American licensed to preach by American Methodists. Photo from "A Son of the Forest. The Experience of Will Apes (sic), A Native of the Forest," courtesy of Internet Archive; graphic by Laurens Glass, United Methodist Communications.

William Apess, born among the Pequot of Massachusetts, was the first Native American Methodist exhorter in New England and the first Native American licensed to preach by American Methodists. He is also credited as the first Native American to write and publish an autobiography. That book, A Son of the Forest, was published in 1829 then re-edited and re-released with a considerable appendix in 1831. A briefer version of the story was included in his 1833 publication, Experiences of Five Christian Indians of the Pequot Tribe. A major focus of both is on his early conversion to Christianity and on his calling and experiences as a Methodist exhorter, and, later, preacher. Many of his writings, including the appendix to the latter volume, An Indian’s Looking-Glass for the White Man, challenge the white supremacy and racism common in his day.  

In His Own Words

From A Son of the Forest, 2-3.
"In view of this treatment, I presume that the reader will exclaim, 'what savages your grand parents were to treat unoffending, helpless children in this cruel manner.' But this cruel and unnatural conduct was the effect of some cause. I attribute it in a great measure to the whites, inasmuch as they introduced among my countrymen, that bane of comfort and happiness, ardent spirits — seduced them into a love of it, and when under its unhappy influence, wronged them out of their lawful possessions... and not only so, but they committed violence of the most revolting kind upon the persons of the female portion of the tribe." 
From A Son of the Forest, 38
"Indeed the stories circulated about the[e Methodists] were bad enough to deter people of 'character!' from attending the Methodist ministry. But it had no effect on me. I thought I had no character to lose in the estimation of those who were accounted great. For what cared they for me? They had possession of the red man's inheritance, and had deprived me of liberty; with this they were satisfied, and could do as they pleased ; therefore, I thought I could do as I pleased, measurably. I therefore went to hear the noisy Methodists."
From An Indian's Looking Glass for the White Man,1833
"Now if the Lord Jesus Christ, who is counted by all to be a Jew, and it is well known that the Jews are a colored people, especially those living in the East, where Christ was born—and if he should appear amongst us, would he not be shut out of doors by many, very quickly? and by those too, who profess religion?"
From Petition to the Legislature of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, January 1834
We presume the above charges and complaints are sufficient to warrant us a redress, and the abrogation of an unconstitutional law... Oh white man! white man! the blood of our fathers, spilt in the Revolutionary War, cries out from the ground of our native soil, to break the chains of oppression, and let our children go free."
From Eulogy on King Philip, 1836
"Let us have principles that will give everyone his due; and then shall wars cease, and the weary find rest. Give the Indian his rights, and you may be assured war will cease...But by this time you have been enabled to see that Philip’s prophecy has come to pass; therefore, as a man of natural abilities, I shall pronounce him the greatest man that was ever in America; and so it will stand, until he is proved to the contrary, to the everlasting disgrace of the Pilgrims’ fathers."

William Apess was born on January 31, 1798, in Colrain, Massachusetts. Early in his life he was abandoned by his parents, raised by abusive grandparents, and became a ward of the town. The town put him under indenture to three different white families. During this time, he received some formal education and attended various religious services, but found himself most drawn to the Methodists, in part because they were despised by higher class people who had shown disdain for him and his Native relatives.

While with the Methodists,Apess experienced conversion at age 15. He wrote, “I felt convinced that Christ died for all mankind – that age, sect, color, country, or situation make no difference. I felt an assurance that I was included in the plan of redemption with all my brethren” (A Son of the Forest, p. 41).  

But his sense of assurance did not last long. Persuaded to join the war effort (the War of 1812), he ended up serving at the Battle of Châteguay (near Montreal), and found himself deeply impacted by the whole experience, and soon deeply affected by alcohol as well. His period of spiritual despond would continue for four years until he made it home in 1817.

About a year after his return home, he began to discern a call to preach and began exhorting. He traveled as a day laborer, a shoemaker, and occasional preacher throughout southern Connecticut, living wherever he could find work. This way of life was common for many day laborers at that time. Married in December 1821 to Mary Wood, in 1825 Apess moved his growing family to Providence, RI, where one of his sisters was living. While there, he became a class leader, was granted a license to exhort from the Methodist Episcopal Church, and felt called to become a missionary. Supporting himself and his family by selling religious books, Apess, traveled throughout New England (including Rhode Island, Boston, and eastern New York), holding meetings and exhorting.

In April 1827 Apess attended the regional conference in Albany, NY and applied for a preacher’s license. The clergy session denied him the license, claiming they did not know enough about his character. Apess questioned their logic. How he could be known well enough to receive an exhorter’s license but not well enough to receive a license to preach? In his writings, he implies that something other than his character was the issue.

Disillusioned and disappointed, he decided to leave the Methodist Episcopal Church to join the newly forming and more democratic Methodist Society, soon to become the Methodist Protestant Church (1828). After becoming known among the Methodist Protestants, he was licensed as a local preacher in 1829. 

Missionary and Advocate
Beginning in 1831, Apess was assigned by the Boston Methodist Protestant conference as a missionary to the Pequot Indians in southern Connecticut. He served as a missionary and preacher, traveling among the Pequot in southeastern Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts.

In 1833, he made a visit to the Mashpee, a Christian Indian community on Cape Cod - a visit that would change the direction of his life.

Among the Mashpee, he became involved in their long-standing struggle against overseers who had been imposed upon the Native community by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Harvard College appointed its pastor who refused to let the Mashpee (who built the chapel) use the facility for their services, and the overseers both controlled the land and exploited its natural resources for personal profit.

Apess worked with two others to write a declaration in July 1833 forbidding any further export of fur or timber by the white overlords. And in January 1834, he addressed the legislature of the Commonwealth on behalf of the Mashpee to dismiss the overseers, dismiss the pastor, support the creation of a system of self-governance, and repeal other discriminatory laws affecting them. In his address, he enumerated many offenses of the overlords against the Mashpee people, decrying their cruelty and the long history of abrogating basic rights guaranteed in the Constitution. The petition asserted, “That we as a tribe will rule our selves, and have the right so to do for all men are born free and Equal says the Constitution of the Country.”  In response, Massachusetts released some of its control over their lands, supported the creation of local self-governance, and, while not dismissing him, ordered the Harvard-appointed preacher to grant the Mashpee, with Apess as their chosen pastor, the right to use the chapel they had built. In 1835, Apess published his account of the incident in Indian Nullification of the Unconstitutional Laws of Massachusetts Relative to the Marshpee Tribe; or, The Pretended Riot Explained.

Have questions?  We have answers!

Ask your questions and check out more FAQS.


Apess continued to serve among the Mashpee as these matters were being resolved, then moved to Boston. During these years, he lost his first wife, Mary, but continued to write extensively, including his greatest political work, Eulogy on King Philip, which he delivered twice as a public address in 1836. In it, Apess offered a view of American history not as a triumph of pious British colonists, but as an ongoing struggle in which America as it had become had two founders of at least equal note: George Washington and Metacomet of the Wampanoag, more commonly known among whites as King Philip. This address drew more attention to him as a lecturer. By the end of the year, he had withdrawn from the ministry to launch a new career on the public lecture circuit around the Boston area.

A financial panic in 1837 combined with lawsuits and escalating debts led him to move to New York City, where he hoped to make a new start with his new wife, Elizabeth. And he did. He was able to resume his livelihood as lecturer until his death in April 1839 from what may have been a stroke.    

Pequot by family, Methodist Protestant by choice, missionary, preacher, prophet, and lecturer by calling, William Apess was a leader among Methodists and Native Americans alike. He was bold to proclaim the gospel of Jesus and to call Americans to follow their own Constitution, if not their Lord, to reject white supremacy and the racial discrimination and recognize the full humanity and full rights of all people in this land.      

This content was produced by Ask The UMC, a ministry of United Methodist Communications.